Dr. Sheikh Abid Ali
National Institute of Biologicals (MoHF), Noida, (UP) India
Despite advances in the treatment options involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and specific targeted therapies, Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. In 2018, globally 18.1 million people had cancer-causing 9.6 million deaths and this burden will double to about 29.4 million new cases by 2040. Approximately 70% of these deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries, with the Asian region contributing the highest percentage (57.3%) of this cancer death toll.
Epidemiological analysis of these cancer cases has manifested that one-third of cancers can be managed by disposing or reducing exposure to risk factors or circumstances. The detonations of evidence seen in the past 30 years established that lifestyle is one of the principal causes of cancer risk as scientifically documented. Substantial research studies have established that fruits and their bioactive components exert therapeutic and preventive effects against cancer by the suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation and angiogenesis, through the modulation of multiple signalling pathways accompanied with little or no side effects to normal cells. Among small soft-fleshed colourful cherries, cherries configure a significant proportion that is being consumed not only in fresh and frozen forms but also as processed and derived products viz. jellies, jams, and canned fruits.
Cherry fruits are rich in bioactive constituents, including flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins and minerals. The present study determined the chemopreventive property of four fractions from sweet cherries: Prunus avium fruit, with focusing on in-vivo chemoprevention activity of the selected potent bioactive fraction. The In-vitro anticancer screening of four leading fractions: Anthocyanin fraction, Methanol fraction, Ethyl acetate and Water fraction was established against different human cancer cell lines of varied tissue origin, Lung, Leukaemia, Breast and (Prostate: using MTT assay, and in vivo study of the most potent bioactive fraction was conducted in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) mouse model. The in vitro cytotoxicity profile demonstrated that among four screened cherry fractions, Anthocyanin fraction prompted the most significant inhibition in tested cell lines with a maximum effect against lung cancer cell line. Execution of apoptosis induced by Anthocyanin fraction in Ascites tumour cells revealed an increased population of apoptotic cells and a significant loss in mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm). Pertaining to its in vivo efficacy, Anthocyanin fraction showed 79% tumour growth inhibition at 20 mg/kg body weight in EAC bearing mice. Thus, the association of identified and unidentified compounds in this fruit and their influence on tested cancer cells makes this a very promising approach for the inhibition of tumour. The current studies raise the potential usefulness of Sweet cherries in chemoprevention against cancer and support its empirical use as a promising nutraceutical agent for combination therapy.
Keywords: Berry, Chemoprevention, Colon Cancer, Polyphenol, Bioactive Compound, Ascites Tumor
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